Type I diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes associated with not enough or no insulin produced by the pancreas due to the die-off or gradual die-off the insulin-producing beta cells
The exact causes of type I diabetes are not identified. However,  the condition is a result of the body’s own immune system mistakenly that destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

Type II diabetes is a chronic acquired medical condition characterized by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose.

The disease is either caused by cells in pancreas die-off or receptor sites clog-up by fat and cholesterol.

In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.

The exact cause of type II diabetes is also unknown. However, some researchers suggested that the condition is most likely caused by genetic mutation and an unhealthy lifestyle.

Untreated and unmanageable type I and II diabetes may induce complications of cardiovascular disease, nerve damage (neuropathy), kidney damage (nephropathy), eye damage (retinopathy). foot damage and skin conditions.

Medication used for the treatment of diabetes is focused on alleviating the symptoms and improving quality of life, particularly, in type II diabetes in slowing down the progression of the disease.

Dr. Waqas Sami, the lead author in the study “Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review” wrote. “Dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle are the major factors for the rapidly rising incidence of DM among developing countries. In type 2 diabetics, recently, the elevated HbA1c level has also been considered as one of the leading risk factors for developing microvascular and macrovascular complications”.
 And, “Improvement in the elevated HbA1c level can be achieved through diet management; thus, the patients could be prevented from developing diabetes complications. Awareness about diabetes complications and consequent improvement in dietary knowledge, attitude, and practices lead to better control of the disease”.

These results suggested changes in diet and lifestyle are the most effective method in the management of type II diabetes.

Other risk factors associated with the early onset of type II diabetes include overweight or obese, age 45 or older, family history, ethnicity, Alaska Native, high blood pressure and cholesterol and women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Broccoli is a mustard/cabbage plant, belongings to the family Brassicaceae. The veggie has large flower heads, usually green in color with a mass of flower head surrounded by leaves and evolved from a wild cabbage plant from the continent of Europe.

With an aim to find a potential wholefood for the treatment of diabetes, researchers examined the effect of broccoli on type 2 diabetes.

The study included SD rats induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by a high-fat diet and injecting a low dose (35 mg/kg) of streptozocin were pretreated by treated broccoli extracts at a dose of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight for 28 days.

According to the tested assays at the 28-day, broccoli extracts showed an improvement in body weight, water, and food intake compared to diabetic control rats.

Compared to the doses viz., 200, 400, 800 mg/kg body weight demonstrated a significant attenuation in the blood glucose at 180 min in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats, also compared to control.

Based on the findings, researchers wrote in the final report, “The study demonstrated that ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea extract has potential antidiabetic activities. Thus Brassica oleracea as a vegetable or its extract can be useful to control hyperglycemia”.

Taken altogether, broccoli may be considered a functional food for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of turmeric in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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